2023.06.09 10:32 OtaraMilclub A masterpiece by Tom L; read, absorb if you have the time. Did you know the British burnt the White House down in the war of 1812? Note the statement in bold.
All of us so-called geopolitical analysts owe a debt to Halford John Mackinder. The Geographical Pivot of History” is the basis for nearly all strategic thinking in today’s policy rooms, think tanks, and military academies of the West.submitted by OtaraMilclub to Wallstreetsilver [link] [comments]
We’ve all heard the first three rules of Mackinder:
Who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the worldBecause of the dominance of Mackinder’s ideas and the policies erected to support it, the world has been subjected to endless conflict over his conception of the “World Island,” which is basically Eurasia.
And that’s why there can be no losing for the West in Ukraine. To the Mackinderists at the top of the power structures in London, Washington D.C. and Brussels, losing Ukraine means losing the entire world, because they have this very-outdated view of world geography.
Mackinder-ism in today’s world is a tautology, reducing to: We have to control the Heartland because we can’t lose the Heartland.
In this singular quest to win the Heartland the West has bankrupted itself — economically, morally, and most importantly, spiritually. This has led to a political crisis gnawing at the center of western society.
Alastair Crooke’s latest piece sums up the situation perfectly,
But it isn’t just the EU that has done this. So has the UK. So too the US.
The cost/benefit analysis of continuing the Ukraine project has reached the tipping point. The problem now is too many in power, like European Commission President Ursula Von der Leyen, still believe they have room to maneuver in a conflict looking increasingly stuck in the geopolitical mud of the Donbass.
The optics at the G7 meeting couldn’t be more stark. Meeting in the one city that is the ultimate symbol of Western madness, Hiroshima, the symbolism was very clear. We are united in our self-righteousness and if you don’t like it, remember what happened to Japan.
We will destroy the planet in order to save it. Indivisible European/Asian security is a euphemism for global war.
No amount of failure seems to dissuade these people. Because failure is simply not an option.
The problem however, is that their myopia is predictable.
When you reduce all of your guiding principles to three lines of code, defeating that code becomes pretty easy, strategically. It doesn’t matter if Mackinder was right or not. He wasn’t. What matters is that the policy-makers think he was.
We’ve all spent too many words working through this. It’s very simple.
If you know your opponent will throw everything they have at a conflict then your strategy is a simple one; destroy everything they throw at it until they run out of money, men, and materiel to throw into it.
And this is exactly what Russia has done.
It is exactly what I expected them to do at the outset of the war failing a swift victory over Ukraine; continue their war of attrition across all theaters against the West until they either 1) sue for peace or 2) collapse under the weight of their own hubris.
Former British Prime Minister Boris Johnson (Who else?), put the kibosh on any early negotiated settlement between Russia and Ukraine.
To Crooke’s point, the West’s investment in Ukraine was simply too big to give up that easily. Believing the ultimate sanctions package would overthrow Putin and destabilize Russia, both Davos and the Anglo-neocons bet too heavily on this working. As my dad used to say about pro athletes, “he spends too much time reading his press clippings…”
Two very Establishment Anglo-American media in the UK (in which U.S. Establishment messages often surface) finally – and bitterly – have admitted: ‘Sanctions on Russia The Telegraph : They “are a joke”; “Russia was ….link removedDo they not remember their failure in 2014/15 when this whole Ukraine War project started? They threw Viktor Yanukovich out of power and Russia took Crimea from them. So, their ‘shock and awe’ then was to throw an epic temper tantrum crashing the price of oil from $125 to $25 per barrel.
This was the first instance of the “Ruble to Rubble” campaign. It didn’t work then. In fact, it set Russia and the world on the path it’s on today. There’s a direct throughline from 2014 to today, not just on the ground but in the financial markets and the politics of the rest of Eastern Europe — The Heartland.
So, while sanctions are a joke, the use of them will only increase as an excuse now to keep third-parties, like say Hungary, from getting out of lock-step with the plan.
Too bad for them that no amount of arm-twisting by link removed changed Hungary’s decision to block any further EU aid to Ukraine. The Heartland, it seems, is increasingly not down with the Commintern.
Failure Is Not an Option, It’s Just Inevitable
But this never seems to matter. No amount of failure has ever prompted these people to do a little second-guessing. Then again, when you can’t see yourself in a mirror self-reflection isn’t a dominant character trait.
Ukraine has always represented the apotheosis of the Neocon/Neoliberal world order. As Crooke points out, they are facing a very unpleasant choice:
The war is now, in this way, being projected as a binary choice: ‘End the war’ versus ‘Win the war’. Europe is tergiversating –standing at the cross-roads; hesitantly starting down one road, only to reverse, and indecisively take a few cautious steps down the other. The EU will both train Ukrainians to fly F-16s; and yet is coy about providing the planes. It smacks of tokenism; but tokenism is often the father to mission-creep.Indeed it is. Because of the closed-mindedness of those in power in the West — their biases, racism, and arrogance — they will not stop in Ukraine until they are forced to by circumstances.
Those circumstances will likely be dictated by the revamped Russian military now configured to fight a longer and different kind of war than the one that began in February 2022.
Every day we see signs that Russia’s military-industrial capacity is increasing rapidly while the EU languishes. The US is rapidly trying to bring back onshore manufacturing lost to the ZIRP and Greenspan Eras, but this is a slow and painful process especially since it has run out of room on the balance sheet to deficit spend to accelerate things.
“Biden” and his merry band of vandals in D.C. are more than happy to burn the place to the ground more thoroughly than the British did in the War of 1812 if they can’t get their way on unlimited taxing and spending.
So, here we are. Bakhmut has fallen. The Ukrainian counter-offensive is non-existent. If anything it was already absorbed by Putin and Prigozhin. Zelenskyy will now get F-16s to attack Crimea and use that as some moral high ground for justifying NATO’s official involvement after Russia’s inevitable counter-attack.
Then the air will be thick with the smell of thermobarics in the morning.
But, regardless of any of that, there will be no truce in the Heartland. Russia will not back down. China will back them to the end, as will OPEC+ and the rest of Central Asia. But they will not escalate one inch further than they need to. Allowing the West to keep thinking they can win is the ultimate form of grinding out a superior opponent.
And even if Ukraine winds up being a decade-long meat grinder with no clear victor, it will serve everyday as a warning to the rest of Asia that there is no going back and their future is better served with their neighbors than accepting bribes to remain viceroys on the West’s payroll.
That’s why the fight for control over Pakistan is actually more important than Ukraine. Because Pakistan represents the East-West corridor tying the World Island together. While Ukraine is the key to breaking up Russia to destroy the North-South axis.
The Tragedy of Imran Khan in Pakistan is one of those side issues that’s actually more important than the main issue, Ukraine. The unprecedented intervention by the Pakistani military, always aligned with western forces, is a clear sign that Mackinderism is alive and well in central Asia.
There is a clear civil war incipient in Pakistan as the civilian government attempts to wrest real control of the country away from the military and its globalist order-givers. Khan’s support isn’t a product of his brilliance as a leader. Like Donald Trump, he is a flawed figure, beset on all sides by traitors undermining him.
He was ousted through the worst kind of backroom dealing, of the type and kind which Italian deep staters were looking at and saying, “Damn! Bravo.”
But, also like Trump, the people understand implicitly that he’s one of them. He’s on their side, despite his faults. So, while we see the most amateurish headlines and ‘analysis’ of what’s happening there from our quisling media, the Pakistani people are coming out by the millions to elevate Khan as their champion.
He doesn’t have to do anything more than survive and return to power to win the day in Pakistan.
While the West fights desperately to stave off defeat of the Heartland, it’s clear the rest of the World Island is making plans to leave them behind. At some point there are simply too many people and too much pressure to keep pushing the world towards a conclusion it doesn’t want to go.
And that’s when everything changes, literally overnight. Until then, it will be another day, another escalation, another pointless political knife fight and thousands of people dying needlessly.
When he published that paper in 1904 all Mackinder did was formalize British imperial thinking into an easily-digested thesis for morons.
Today we are being gaslit by these morons into believing our lives depend on fighting for ‘freedom’ in central Ukraine.
It was written as the British empire’s grip on power was beginning to wane. World War I would put the capper on that.
It was a reflection of the growing anxiety bubbling up as the fringes of the empire rebelled. If we can’t hold onto south Africa (The Boer War), for example, at least we should make sure no one controls the World Island as we retreat.
That’s why Sykes-Picot left us with a Middle East in tribal conflict. Israel only made things there worse. Pakistan was created as anti-India and Ukraine was split off from the USSR in such a way as to ensure we would be exactly where we are today.
All because some imperial-minded Europeans can’t bring themselves to share the world with brown people
2023.06.09 08:40 GoingCrazy0515 Global Automotive Engine Coolant Market Size, Growth Rate, Industry Opportunities 2023-2029
2023.06.09 04:32 Competitive_Horror23 A Possible August Surprise
2023.06.09 01:09 boatz4helen BRICS country South Africa is failing as a state right now.
2023.06.09 00:06 k_ve0 Really bad luck or something else?
2023.06.08 22:19 Ok_Gear_7448 Native American communities of the Confederate States of America circa 1914, in my friend's Confederate victory TL
submitted by Ok_Gear_7448 to AlternateHistory [link] [comments]
so quick clarification:
community = significant presence, not necessarily a majority, in several places, they are less than 20% of the population but they are a significant enough presence to be noted
key from largest to I can't be bothered:
dark red = Maya
red = Cherokee
pale red = Choktaw
purple = Chickasaw
olive green = Moskito
orange = Creek
strong green = Seminole
off white = Comanchee
grey = Tarahumra
darker grey - Yaqui
pale green = Apache
pale yellow = Lehca
teal blue = Lumbee
off yellow = Garifurna
pale blue = Pech
light teal blue = O'dham
the other small colours are just the small tribes of North Carolina and Oklahoma
context for the changes from OTL:
the five civilised tribes remain the majority in the Indian country ITTL, though large black (legally held as POW's) and white populations exist within the area. the five civilised tribes maintain a very very high birth rate, 13.5 births per woman. this ramp up in birth rates began with concerted efforts in the 1880's and 1890's. this was spearheaded by the tribal leadership, conservative women and the Orange Order (yes that Orange Order). this naturally led to a lot of kids, with Seqoyan oil being largely under state control, the profits were largely redirected into child care. in spite of oil money and the Orange Order providing badly needed child care, many Seqoyan families simply couldn't take care of their children leading to a new solution, send them east to various boarding schools in their ancestral homelands. this paired with wealthier Seqoyan's frequently choosing to move to their traditional homelands, especially the Seminole, led to their communities out in the south east being revived.
the Comanchee, on essentially a passing comment by Robert E Lee, were saved from their OTL fate of near annihilation. during Lee's presidency, the Comanchee were placed in a reservation running along the Texas New Mexico border where they could in his words "bother the Yankees with their barbarism". the Comanchee atleast in the south of their reservation have been transitioning to cotton over their traditional economy of looting and burning anything resembling a Yankee's house in the New Mexico desert.
the Apache were generally better treated by the CSA ITTL, the Lipan were allowed to remain on a reservation. they sometimes go north to join the Mescalero in raiding New Mexico. the Mescalero maintain a small reservation along the New Mexico border.
thoughts and questions would be appreciated
2023.06.08 17:36 Sky-Flower103 Gear Box Fluid
2023.06.08 14:44 kittehgoesmeow What A Day: Blame Canada by Nick Turner & Crooked Media (06/07/23)
alex on Twitter: "plotting revenge on canada"
2023.06.08 12:52 Chico237 #NIOCORP~ SCANDIUM OXIDE, GREEN HYDROGEN & BLOOM ENERGY in the news! & more....
submitted by Chico237 to NIOCORP_MINE [link] [comments]
June 7, 2023~Bloom Energy, Perenco to Deploy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in the United Kingdom~Bloom Energy, Perenco to Deploy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in the United Kingdom Business Wire
The Bloom Energy Server® platform, to be delivered in late 2023, will be installed at Wytch Farm in Dorset, England, the largest onshore oil field in western Europe, where it will be used to support Perenco’s baseload requirements. (Photo: Business Wire)
SAN JOSE, Calif. & LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bloom Energy (NYSE:BE) has signed an agreement with Perenco to install 2.5 megawatts (MW) of Bloom’s solid oxide fuel cells at a site in England. Perenco is a leading independent hydrocarbon company, producing 500,000 BOE of oil and gas per day from its operations in 14 partner countries.
The Bloom Energy Server® platform, to be delivered in late 2023, will be installed at Wytch Farm in Dorset, England, the largest onshore oil field in western Europe, where it will be used to support Perenco’s baseload requirements. The agreement marks the first deployment of Bloom fuel cell technology in the United Kingdom.
“This is an important step that will demonstrate how our solid oxide fuel cell technology supports the resilience and sustainability goals of our energy-intensive clients,” said Tim Schweikert, Senior Managing Director of International Business Development at Bloom Energy.
“Perenco has always been a pioneer in innovation and long-term investment in the countries where we operate,” said Benoit de la Fouchardiere, Perenco CEO. “Today’s announcement is another important step as we continue to reduce our emissions wherever we work. We look forward to a successful initial deployment at Wytch Farm and to then expanding the use of the technology into other global operations sites.”
The agreement with Perenco is another major step in Bloom’s expansion in Europe, following the recent sales agreement for northern Europe with Elugie, a marketing partnership agreement with Telam for Spain and Portugal, and energy platform sales to Cefla and Ferrari in Italy announced in 2022.
For more information about the Bloom Energy Server, see https://www.bloomenergy.com/technology/.
JUNE 6, 2023 ~Westinghouse and Bloom Energy Sign Letter of Intent to Accelerate Zero-Carbon, Large-Scale Hydrogen Production in the Nuclear Industry~Bloom Energy - Bloom Energy Demonstrates Hydrogen Production with the World’s Largest and Most Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer
CRANBERRY TOWNSHIP, Pa. & SAN JOSE, Calif. – June 6, 2022 – Westinghouse Electric Company and Bloom Energy Corporation (NYSE:BE) today announced that they have entered into a Letter of Intent to pursue clean hydrogen production in the commercial nuclear power market. The companies are teaming to identify and implement clean hydrogen projects across the nuclear industry.
Westinghouse and Bloom Energy will jointly develop an optimized and large-scale high temperature integrated electrolysis solution for the nuclear industry. With the ability to operate 24/7 and provide high-quality steam input, nuclear plants are well-positioned to utilize electrolyzer technology and produce substantial quantities of clean hydrogen with minimal disruption to current, ongoing operations.
“Through this collaboration, we are committed to delivering an economical solution for large-scale hydrogen production in the nuclear industry, which further supports the path to net zero carbon emissions,” said Pam Cowan, Westinghouse President of Americas Operating Plant Services.
“We are proud Westinghouse has turned to Bloom and our solid oxide technology to supercharge the clean hydrogen economy,” said Rick Beuttel, vice president, hydrogen business, Bloom Energy. “Solid oxide technology is well suited for nuclear applications, efficiently harnessing steam to further improve the economics of hydrogen production. High temperature electrolysis is already garnering attention and accolades as a cost-effective and viable solution to create low-cost, clean hydrogen, which is critical to meeting aggressive decarbonization goals.”
Global demand for hydrogen and its emerging applications is projected to increase tenfold or more by 2050, surpassing the current infrastructure for producing and delivering hydrogen. As hydrogen usage expands from traditional industrial uses to the fuel of a clean future, the need to produce it in larger quantities and from low- and zero-carbon sources is clear.
The hydrogen produced in nuclear plants can be utilized to serve many industries such as renewable fuels production, oil and metals refining, ammonia synthesis, mining operations, and mobility in sectors such as heavy trucks, buses, and even air travel. The companies also are well positioned to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s developing hydrogen hubs.
About WestinghouseWestinghouse Electric Company is shaping the future of carbon-free energy by providing safe, innovative nuclear technologies to utilities globally. Westinghouse supplied the world’s first commercial pressurized water reactor in 1957 and the company’s technology is the basis for nearly one-half of the world’s operating nuclear plants. Over 135 years of innovation makes Westinghouse the preferred partner for advanced technologies covering the complete nuclear energy life cycle. For more information, visit www.westinghousenuclear.com and follow us on Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.
About Bloom EnergyBloom Energy empowers businesses and communities to responsibly take charge of their energy. The company’s leading solid oxide platform for distributed generation of electricity and hydrogen is changing the future of energy. Fortune 100 companies around the world turn to Bloom Energy as a trusted partner to deliver lower carbon energy today and a net-zero future. For more information, visit www.bloomenergy.com.
MAY 7, 2023~World’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer begins producing hydrogen~World’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer begins producing hydrogen (hydrogentechworld.com)
Bloom Energy has begun generating hydrogen from the world’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer installation at NASA’s Ames Research Center. This high-temperature unit produces 20–25% more hydrogen per MW than commercially demonstrated lower-temperature electrolyzers such as PEM or alkalinehttps://preview.redd.it/r9j9ub5zur4b1.png?width=1536&format=png&auto=webp&s=8de4ed62233ef7c13a523b704dc0d2708068d3f2
This electrolyzer demonstration showcases the maturity, efficiency and commercial readiness of Bloom’s solid oxide technology for large-scale, clean hydrogen production. The 4 MW Bloom Electrolyzer™, delivering the equivalent of over 2.4 tonnes per day of hydrogen output, was built, installed and operationalized in a span of two months to demonstrate the speed and ease of deployment.
“This demonstration is a major milestone for reaching net-zero goals,” said KR Sridhar, Ph.D., Founder, Chairman and CEO of Bloom Energy. “Hydrogen will be essential for storing intermittent and curtailed energy and for decarbonizing industrial energy use. Commercially viable electrolyzers are the key to unlocking the energy storage puzzle, and solid oxide electrolyzers offer inherently superior technology and economic advantages. Bloom Energy, as the global leader in solid oxide technology, is proud to share this exciting demonstration with the world: our product is ready for prime time.”
The current demonstration expands on Bloom’s recent project on a 100 kW system located at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which achieved record-breaking electrolyzer efficiency. In the ongoing project, 4,500 hours of full load operations have been completed with a Bloom Electrolyzer™, producing hydrogen more efficiently than any other process – over 25% more efficiently than low-temperature electrolysis.
The INL steam and load simulations replicated nuclear power conditions to validate full capability of technology application at nuclear facilities, and the pilot results revealed the Bloom Electrolyzer producing hydrogen at 37.7 kWh per kg of hydrogen. Dynamic testing conducted at INL included ramping down the system from 100 percent of rated power to 5 percent in less than 10 minutes without adverse system impacts. Even at 5 percent of rated load, the energy efficiency (kWh/kg) was as good or better than other electrolyzer technologies at their 100% rated capacity. These results will be presented at the Department of Energy’s Annual Review Meeting in Washington DC on 7 June 2023.
Dr. Ravi Prasher, CTO of Bloom Energy, said: “The amount of electricity needed by the electrolyzer to make hydrogen will be the most dominant factor in determining hydrogen production cost. For this reason, the efficiency of the electrolyzer, the electricity needed to produce a kilogram of hydrogen becomes the most critical figure of merit. This 4 MW demonstration at the NASA Ames Research Center proves that the energy efficiency of our large-scale electrolyzer is similar to the small-scale system tested at INL highlighting the strength of our modular architecture. The electrolyzer product is leveraging the Bloom platform knowhow of more than 1 GW of solid oxide fuel cells deployed in the field and providing approximately 1 trillion cumulative cell operating hours. The same technology platform that can convert natural gas and hydrogen to electricity can be used reversibly to convert electricity to hydrogen. With Bloom’s high-efficiency, high-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers, we are one step closer to a decarbonized future powered by low-cost clean hydrogen.”
April 5, 2022 ~Scandium emerges from the shadows~
Scandium emerges from the shadows - MMTA
Scandium has long been considered an “if” metal. If only it were available in quantity, it could transform aircraft production and fuel consumption. If only it were available in quantity, it could speed the emerging hydrogen economy. If only it were available in quantity, it could accelerate the rollout of 5G technologies. And so on.The view has been that scandium could be used in numerous large-volume applications, if only supplies were sufficient to meet the potential demand. Manufacturers regularly cited a lack of sufficient scandium supply as the reason why they did not roll out new uses and products containing scandium.
After a near-mythic role in the 1980s (as a strengthening agent in aluminium alloys deployed in the last generation of Soviet MiG fighter aircraft and even, reputedly, in ballistic missile nosecones), scandium entered the banal in the 1990s, in sporting goods and, bizarrely, hand guns.
Bloom Energy turned the tide starting around 2010, with its introduction of fuel cells based on scandium-stabilised zirconia ceramic electrolytes. Bloom has grown rapidly and now represents perhaps 80% of the world’s annual consumption of SCANDIUM, a paltry 25t or so of oxide in 2021.
And yet, despite these rickety foundations, SCANDIUM consumption is poised to grow dramatically in the next decade, buoyed by new sources of supply and sustained by demand-side innovation.
The supply sideLet’s start with supply. Until about 2018, most scandium was supplied as a by-product in China and Russia, from uranium and titanium processing. Since then, however, much has changed.
First, Sumitomo Metal Mining built and has now commissioned a scandium recovery circuit at its Tagano Bay nickel high pressure acid leach (HPAL) plant in the Philippines. This plant recovers scandium oxalate for processing into oxide (and probably into scandium-zirconium oxide particles destined for Bloom Energy) in Japan. The plant recovers 7-8tpy of scandium oxide and when commissioned increased global supply by around 40%. Capital costs were perhaps US$5M/t of scandium oxide.
Second, the Chinese integrated titanium producer Lomon Billions has established a 20-30tpy scandium oxide facility with the potential to increase to 50tpy. The company estimates up to 100tpy of scandium oxide are available in its titanium plants using the sulphate process.
Third, in 2021, Rio Tinto commenced scandium recovery from its Sorel Tracy plant in Québec, Canada. The pilot plant can supply 3tpy of scandium oxide and cost US$6M. The site has the ability to supply an estimated 50-60tpy of oxide based on current raw material feed.
Finally, UC Rusal has both commissioned a 3tpy pilot scandium oxide plant, recovering scandium oxide from red mud deposits, and also commenced marketing and selling a range of scandium alloys (branded “ScAlution” alloys) that boast enhanced performance at low (typically 0.1%) concentrations of scandium.
Plus, it is not only Rusal that has pioneered low-scandium alloys. In the USA, Eck Industries, a specialist aluminium casting house, is commercialising cerium-based alloys in which scandium, again at low loadings, could provide additional strength as well as much reduced post-cast processing requirements.
Looking further out, there are numerous scandium projects in development, many of which should come into production around the middle of the decade, thanks to two parallel forces.
The main driver for scandium, as for so many minor metals, is vehicle electrification. There are multiple operating and development projects utilising HPAL technology to recover and separate nickel and cobalt in laterite deposits, many of which can in principle recover scandium. While the moral of Tagano Bay is that for existing plants retrofitting can be costly and low yield, there are emerging projects in Australia that are designing scandium recovery into their circuits alongside nickel and cobalt. The potential output of scandium can range from 50-100tpy or more, depending on the project.
The second driver is the heightened concerns over supply chain security for critical metals. In the EU this has led to the “ScaVanger” programme to recover scandium from titanium waste streams. In the USA, red mud scandium recovery as well as by-product scandium stand to benefit.
The demand sideThe demand side is a little more complicated but nonetheless extremely positive. Bloom’s power generation business continues to grow and has surely been reinforced by severe power disruptions in the past three years in California and Texas. Moreover, Bloom has now received initial approvals for maritime power generation (IMO regulations are forcing seagoing vessels to reduce dramatically their sulphur emissions, and Bloom can facilitate this change), and Bloom is also developing its technology to run in reverse, so to speak, as a generator of hydrogen. Critically, Bloom in the past five years has managed to bring its system costs and performance under control, removing any technology-related going-concern issues.
Scandium is also a strong candidate for RF antennas able to support 5G frequencies. A typical high-end cell phone may require 100 RF filters, and in the 5G frequency range, scandium aluminium nitride is being used as the active material in these filters (called “bulk acoustic wave,” or “BAW” filters).
Aerospace is a third area of application, and while commercial aviation likely remains years away from broad use of scandium alloys, near-term use in space and autonomous aircraft is an avenue for strong potential growth of scandium alloys. The cost to place 1kg in orbit has dropped dramatically but is still of the order of US$1,000/kg, so any system weight reductions can be extremely valuable.
Electric vehicles (EVs) also offer the potential for large volumes of scandium demand. Weight reduction is the obvious reason. Lux Research has estimated a 1kg weight saving in an EV will be worth US$5 in 2030. But a second consideration is overall product cost. Scandium can reduce or potentially even eliminate the need for post-casting heat treatments, which can in some instances double the cost of an as-cast part. Thus the savings from the use of scandium alloys, especially at low scandium loadings, can be large.
In addition, as EVs shift to heat pumps in their HVAC systems, scandium can support the implementation of aluminium radiators without adding substantial system volume (as discussed by CM Group in its 2018 scandium report).
Naturally, there are other opportunities for scandium. Achieving a robust aluminium alloy able to perform at 300°C could displace large amounts of titanium, and Eck’s alloys are closing in on this goal. Maritime applications, especially in the military arena but also in autonomous vessels and ferries, could embrace scandium thanks to its greatly enhanced anti-corrosion impact in aluminium. Passenger jets are also a market that is likely to happen at some point.
Most important, perhaps, is the fact that well financed firms have entered the market and are able to supply up to about 100tpy each. Supply at this level is all-but-certain to create demand, and in turn this should stimulate new supply. Scandium’s chicken-and-egg problem, in which lack of supply held back demand that in turn held back supply, has been reversed, with growing (and reliable) supply poised to stimulate actual demand, that in turn will pull through new supply, and transform scandium from “if” to “when”.
JANUARY 2023 National Defense Act Calls out NIOBIUM & TITANIUM & SCANDIUM & the need to establish a U.S. Industrial Base for the Supply & Processing of ALL!https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20220711/CRPT-117hrpt397.pd
SCANDIUM PAGE # 246 Briefing on the Establishment of Domestic Scandium Processing Facilities in the United StatesThe committee believes the United States industrial base for the supply and processing of the critical mineral scandium has significant vulnerabilities. The committee also believes that the United States should seek to eliminate dependence on Chinese and Russian sources of scandium, with support from allies and partners. Accordingly, public and private sectors should cooperate closely to establish scandium processing facilities in the United States. Therefore, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, to provide a briefing to the House Committee on Armed Services not later than May 1, 2023, on public and private sector activities, working with allied nations, to establish scandium processing facilities in the United States, especially facilities based on more efficient, cleaner, and less energy intensive technologies. This briefing will also include how these processing facilities will help the United States reduce dependence on and compete more effectively with China and Russia.
MAY 2023 ~Exploring global supply and demand of scandium oxide in 2030 ~ (NIOCORP is Mentioned!)
Exploring global supply and demand of scandium oxide in 2030 - ScienceDirect
Incorporation of scandium in materials has environmental benefits across multiple industrial sectors, particularly in decarbonization of energy. One pathway to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is to generate electricity using hydrogen or synthetic liquid fuels, which are more efficient than combustion engines and easily used in co-generation of electricity and heat (IEA, 2019). The functional technology is a fuel cell. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) produces electricity by oxidizing an energy carrier. The standard SOFCs produced by Bloom Energy are refrigerator-sized and input liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons (methane or biogas) to produce 100 kW of power. These cells process natural gas, biogas, or hydrogen to generate electricity with higher efficiency; up to two times higher compared to a gas-fired power station with efficiency of only 33–48% (Deepika et al., 2018). They are typically used to produce electricity and heat on-site for large buildings (Bloom Energy, 2021a). Currently, SOFC producers (e.g., Bloom Energy) utilize yttrium-stabilized zirconia and a scandia-stabilized zirconia in electrolytes; however, there are benefits of utilizing scandium over yttrium. Use of scandia-stabilized zirconia increases electro-conductivity and decreases operation temperature, resulting in higher efficiency and reliability (Deepika et al., 2018; Laguna-Bercero et al., 2009). Spurred by carbon reduction and global renewable energy initiatives, Bloom Energy is expanding its partnership worldwide (Bloom Energy, 2020, 2021b), resulting in increased demand in the SOFC market and scandium oxide required to produce SOFC boxes (Weinstein et al., 2018).
Scandium also has potential for light-weighting (alloys), which is important for improving fuel economy as it requires less energy to transport lighter materials. Currently, transportation contributes 27% to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and 14% globally (EPA, 2022; IEA, 2022b). The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards require vehicle manufacturers to continuously increase fuel efficiency (NHTSA, 2022). One approach is through light-weighting by replacing conventional aluminum alloy parts in vehicles with scandium alloys, potentially reducing 10% of vehicle mass and thus 6–8% of emissions (Joost, 2012). Given that the United States passenger vehicle emissions were 3.2 gigatonnes in 2020, this would translate to 0.2–0.3 gigatonnes of reduction (IEA, 2022a). In the United States, the Build Back Better agenda mandates 50% of new vehicles in 2030 must be EVs (The White House, 2021). To push emission reductions further than electric vehicle adoption, light-weighting should be considered. If legislation mandated regulation like Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for EVs, there will be further reductions in energy demand. Lighter scandium alloys serve to reduce energy demand from transportation, which directly aids to mitigate climate change induced by automobiles.
Another example of light-weighting is for commercial airplanes. The bionic partition structure is a wall partition between crew members and passengers, which also serves as an emergency stretcher and foldable seating for crew members (Airbus, 2016). Current commercial airplane's partition structures are bulky and heavy, weighing approximately 63 kg (Lau, 2016). Airbus and AutoDesk collaborated and successfully produced a 30 kg bionic partition structure using Scalmalloy®, a proprietary aluminum-magnesium-scandium alloy (APWORKS GmbH, 2015; Rhodes, 2015). Replacement of 4 conventional partition structures per A320 plane in commercial aircraft with Scalmalloy® structures could save up to 465,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year (Airbus, 2016).
Despite scandium's potential role in meeting future sustainability goals, historically and currently, scandium is under-utilized because of its low supply and high cost due to its nature as a by-product. Prices of scandium oxide ranged from $3,800–5,000 per kg from 2013 to 2020 (Gambogi, 2017, 2020, 2021), placing scandium among the most expensive elements in production. High prices and low supply are due in part to its production as a co-product - production is dependent on the demand of other primary metals it is mined with. For example, when there is an increase in scandium demand and price, supply does not respond instantaneously because producers need to increase production of the primary products. This leads to price volatility. Scandium oxide is produced as a co-product due to its sparse concentration in ore, which makes it uneconomical to mine alone. It has been extracted as a co-product with iron ore, other rare earths, titanium, and zirconium in China; uranium in Kazakhstan and Ukraine; apatite (phosphorus) and uranium in Russia; and nickel in the Philippines (Gambogi, 2021). The global production of scandium oxide was 14–23 tonnes (15–25 tons) per year in 2020 (Gambogi, 2021), which was small in comparison to 220,000 tonnes (240,000 tons) of global rare earths oxide per year (Cordier, 2022) and 68 million tonnes (75 million tons) of aluminum per year (Lee Bray, 2022).
Scandium appears to continue as a co-product in the future, for the most part. Mining companies expect scandium to be a minor co-product from mining other metals such as nickel, cobalt, titanium, niobium, etc. (Clean TeQ Holdings Limited, 2018; NioCorp Superalloy Materials, 2019; Platina Resource Limited, 2021; Wang et al., 2020). There is one exception in New South Wales, Australia by Scandium International Mining Corporation, whose primary product is scandium oxide (Scandium International Mining Corp, 2020). For consumption, SOFCs by Bloom Energy are the main scandium oxide consumer with 74% of total global consumption (CM Group, 2018). A typical Bloom Energy server box of 100 MW contains 13–15 kg of scandium oxide and costs $700,000–800,000 in 2010 (Ecclestone, 2020; Jenkins, 2010). Before subsidies, Bloom Energy servers cost approximately $0.14 per kilowatt-hour of electricity compared to $0.10 per kilowatt-hour of retail power price on the U.S. national grid (Helman, 2020). Although sufficient and reliable supply play an important role in other sectors (e.g., SOFCs, commercial aerospace), price is crucial in adoption in other sectors (e.g., sporting goods, beverage cans). Abstract continues....
NIOCORP MANAGEMENT ON Jan. 31st, 2023, ~What were they doing in D.C. for 4-Days?~ "Working with White House officials on critical minerals issues. This Administration is working hard to help support environmentally responsible critical minerals projects like NioCorp’s Elk Creek Project in the great State of Nebraska. "~
MAY 25th 2023 ~NioCorp Demonstrates Higher Niobium Recovery Rates New Processing Approach Demonstrates the Ability to Make More Niobium per Tonne of Ore, Produce a Higher Purity Product, and Potentially Address New Markets with Different Niobium Productshttps://www.niocorp.com/niocorp-demonstrates-higher-niobium-recovery-rates/
Potential New Forms of Niobium Products and Potential Markets
NioCorp’s new process approach, which incorporates a chlorination step to improve niobium and titanium separation and purification, also has demonstrated NioCorp’s ability to potentially produce three different niobium products: (1) ferroniobium; (2) niobium chloride; and (3) niobium oxide.NioCorp had previously planned to make ferroniobium, which is used by the steel industry to produce high-strength low-alloy steel alloys. Those alloys are used in the construction, automotive and transport, aerospace and defense, oil and gas, and other industries. Niobium is a $3.3 billion per year global market but is currently served by only three major niobium producers in two countries.Niobium chloride would likely be converted by NioCorp into niobium oxide, but niobium chloride is also used in glass and ceramic manufacturing.Niobium oxide is critical to multiple applications, including niobium-lithium-ion batteries, superalloys, superconducting applications, capacitors, specialized optics, and many others. Its use in niobium-lithium-ion batteries is considered by current niobium producers as one of the fastest growing prospective global niobium markets
MAY 26th 2023~NioCorp Demonstrates the Ability to Potentially Double Projected Titanium Recovery Rates for the Elk Creek Project
https://www.niocorp.com/niocorp-demonstrates-the-ability-to-potentially-double-projected-titanium-recovery-rates-for-the-elk-creek-project/Demonstration Plant Shows New Recovery Process May Double NioCorp’s Titanium Production per Tonne of Ore as well as Produce a Higher Purity Product that May Command Higher Market Prices
CENTENNIAL, Colo. (May 26, 2023) – NioCorp Developments Ltd. (“NioCorp” or the “Company”) (NASDAQ:NB) (TSX:NB) is pleased to announce that it has successfully demonstrated an ability to potentially double the recovery of titanium from each tonne of ore the Company expects to mine at its Nebraska-based Elk Creek Critical Minerals Project (the “Project”), once project financing is obtained and the commercial plant is constructed. The new process is expected to produce a purer form of titanium that may command a higher price than is assumed in NioCorp’s June 2022 feasibility study for the Project (the “Feasibility Study”). NioCorp’s demonstration plant in Trois Rivieres, Quebec, has shown that the Company’s new and improved recovery process can likely achieve an 83.7% rate of overall titanium recovery to final product. This compares to a 40.3% titanium recovery rate in NioCorp’s previous process approach. This new result points to a potentially large increase in the amount of titanium that NioCorp can potentially produce at currently planned rates of mining
MAY 29th 2023~NioCorp Launches Phased Approach to Commercial Production of Made-in-America Aluminum-Scandium Master Alloy
AMES LAB COLLABORATION IN 2019!
NioCorp Partnering with Nanoscale Powders LLC to Explore the Possibility of Establishing the First US-Based Mine-to-Master-Alloy Vertically Integrated Production of the High-Performance MaterialNioCorp’s Potential Commercial Production of Al-Sc Master Alloy Could Launch Prior to the Company’s Planned Production of >100 Tonnes/Year of Scandium Oxide at its Proposed Elk Creek Critical Minerals Project in Nebraska and Would Use Scandium Produced at the Elk Creek Facility as well as From Other SourcesChina Now Dominates the Scandium World, but North America is Now Positioned to Emerge as a “Leading Scandium Producer,” says NioCorp CEO
MAY 29th 2023~ Jim/NIOCORP respond to question on recent Scandium News Release above:What comes to mind right off the bat is:*A)"How is this Scandium AlSc master Alloy different than what Niocorp produced with IBC & AMES laboratory???"*Response:
"It is a different process that will be utilized. "*B) Will this be a Patentable approach now moving forward? in conjunction with Nanoscale???*Response:
" Yes and yes. But we do not discuss the details of intellectual property matters except as required by law"(\****This is very interesting indeed because a few years back Niocorp was not interested in patenting any such materials!)*
*C) IS NIOCORP still engaged with IBC, AMES & OTHER ENTITIES in regards to Scandium Alloy production & uses moving forward? and with the New Niobium & Titanium oxides as well!!!!
"We are focusing on our partnership with Nanoscale on the production of AlSc master alloy, but we engaged with a number of parties on various elements of our scandium-aluminum master alloy business development. We are not working with IBC on niobium or titanium product development efforts."
(****SOUNDS LIKE OTHER COLLABORATIONS ARE ONGOING WITH POSSIBLE PRIVATE & GOVERNMENT ENTITIES?? OFF-TAKE AGREEMENTS & SO MUCH MORE! COULD BE IN PLAY AS THE MINE IS BUILT & NEARS PRODUCTION!!!!!!)
"ENGAGED WITH A NUMBER OF VARIOUS PARTIES!!!!"
FORM YOUR OWN OPINIONS & CONCLUSIONS ABOVE!
(Please Scroll down to see earlier Reddit POST ON GREEN HYDROGEN!)https://preview.redd.it/xgyok547yr4b1.png?width=480&format=png&auto=webp&s=935baf0d83038b08431d58f6692168529e67224d
2023.06.08 11:29 richi-carmen Selection of rice husk biomass pellet mill
We commonly speak about rice husk pellet fuel as well as biomass pellet mill, however do you recognize just how it is made use of, and also what are the standards for rice husk biomass pellet machine option?submitted by richi-carmen to pelletmachinery [link] [comments]
1. The selection of rice husk biomass pellet mill
The selection of rice husk biomass granulator has the adhering to criteria:
Now rice husk pellets are extremely valuable. They can not only decrease carbon dioxide emissions, however likewise enhance the application rate of energy. Biomass power has a distinct green advancement possibility. If we want to produce excellent biomass pellets, we need to select For a good rice husk biomass pellet mill, first refer to the adhering to indicate choose a high quality rice husk biomass pellet mill:
Related post: Rice Husk Pellet Machine
（ 1 ） The rice husk biomass pellet mill need to be dry when extruding the rice husk, since the raw product itself consists of wetness, so do not include sticky to the raw material when selecting the biomass pellet device to function.
（ 2 ） The raw materials used by the rice husk biomass pellet mill are suitable for various biomass basic materials, and also the thickness of our granules have to be higher than 1.1-1 .3. When generating one ton of granular basic materials, the power usage is less than 35-80 kWh, and also the demand is that the electrical power is not permitted to go beyond 80 kWh/ton.
Rice husk pellets do not require to be broken or pulverized in the manufacturing process, yet can be straight granulated. Welcome to speak with the rice husk biomass pellet mill.
RICHI equipment has actually been established for more than 25 years, concentrating on biomass pellet mill for sale, the advancement and manufacturing of single/complete pellet production lines such as animal feed, biomass fuel, timber waste, grass, straw, organic fertilizer, and so on, as well as offer design as well as services for EPC/Turnkey tasks!
Related post: paper pellet machine
2. Ring Die biomass pellet mill available
What is the ring die of rice husk biomass pellet granulator? I think that many individuals have actually declined this point, however it is really understandable, since we do rarely come into contact with this point in our lives. However we all recognize that the rice husk biomass pellet mill is a gadget for pressing rice husks into eco-friendly biomass gas, and also the ring die is a crucial part and among the elements of the rice husk biomass pellet devices. At the same time, it is likewise an tools One of the prone parts.
Ring die pellet devices are normally utilized in timber handling factories or food processing factories. Different business utilize different biomass pellet mill and also ring dies.
（ 1 ） The ring die is a porous annular delicate get rid of thin wall surface, thick hole as well as high dimensional accuracy. In operation, the feed is squeezed by rotating annular dies and also rolls, protrudes outside from the inner wall surface with the die holes to the strip, and also is after that cut on the knife into pellets of the desired length.
（ 2 ） The ring die is really essential in the production procedure of the biomass pellet mill, because it not just affects the quality of the created pellets, but additionally the cost of ring die damages is really high, even making up more than 25% of the maintenance price of the workshop making use of the biomass pellet mill.
（ 3 ） The option, sensible usage as well as reliable maintenance of the ring die of the rice husk biomass pellet mill can properly extend the service life of the ring die. To find out more, please continue to visit the main site of the biomass pellet making maker manufacturer.
3. Rice husk biomass pellet mill equipment reuses waste sources
（ 1 ） Rice husk biomass pellet mill recycles waste resources. In today's culture, sources are scarce, and also energy preservation as well as environmental management have to be put on the program. For waste materials such as rice husks as well as straws, which can be recycled again, the rice husk biomass pelletizer machine solves these issues.
（ 2 ） The pellet gas created by the rice husk biomass pellet mill can indirectly change coal, oil, power, gas and other energy resources, so the pellet machine equipment is the agent of brand-new energy tools.
（ 3 ） The rice husk biomass pellet mill can likewise refine agricultural deposits such as plant straws and also branches. The biomass pellet fuel generated by the waste resources via the pellet maker devices is an environmentally friendly new power source.
（ 4 ） Biomass fuel has reduced ash, sulfur and nitrogen material, and also is a sustainable brand-new biomass fuel with tidy combustion, environmental management and energy conserving features.
（ 5 ） The introduction of rice husk biomass pellet mill not only properly soothes the stress of biomass pellet supply, but additionally is extra conducive to the healthy and balanced and also steady advancement of the national economic situation.
（ 6） Rice husk biofuel pellet equipment is a sort of waste renewable energy fuel, the calorific worth is more than that of biomass pellets of comparable resources, higher than ordinary coal, smokeless, odorless, tidy and also sanitary, and can be extensively used in residence heating and biomass boilers.
（ 7 ） In industry, it can replace coal or hefty oil-fired vapor central heating boilers as well as can likewise be used as chemical resources for deep handling of activated carbon and also silicon carbide. Crystalline silicon, etc.
Rice husk biomass pellet mill is included with pellet fuel thickness, high calorific worth, easy to use, no contamination, easy to shop and also transportation, and so on. It can replace firewood, coal, gas, dissolved gas, etc. It is widely utilized in stoves, heating, hot water and vapor Pots, drying heating systems, industrial boilers, nuclear power plant and also etc. Rice husk biomass pellet mill is a new type of reusing and also environmental protection equipment in several nations.
If you need to know even more concerning brand-new layout biomass pellet mill offer for sale Brazil, China specialist manufacturing facility supplied excellent quality biomass pellet mill available Romania, manufacturing facility used new modern technology biomass pellet mill available South Korea, manufacturing facility used new farming waste biomass pellet mill for sale Poland, factory offering brand-new biomass pellet mill up for sale U.S.A., affordable design ce biomass pellet mill to buy Austria, easy to run high quality biomass pellet mill offer for sale Australia, biomass pellet mill to buy Indonesia, biomass pellet mill up for sale Malaysia, biomass pellet mill up for sale Thailand, manufacturing facility offer high quality biomass pellet mill to buy Netherlands, please call Richi Equipment for information.
2023.06.08 08:18 TerribleSell2997 Motor Monitoring Market to see Huge Growth by 2029
2023.06.08 08:18 TerribleSell2997 Motor Monitoring Market to Witness Astonishing Growth by 2029
2023.06.08 04:26 MediumBug8921 Car W/O Oil Cap
2023.06.07 22:43 autotldr Rich countries with high greenhouse gas emissions could pay $170tn in climate reparations
Rich industrialised countries responsible for excessive levels of greenhouse gas emissions could be liable to pay $170tn in climate reparations by 2050 to ensure targets to curtail climate breakdown are met, a new study calculates.
It is the first scheme where wealthy countries historically responsible for excessive or unjust greenhouse emissions including the UK, US, Germany, Japan and Russia, are held liable to compensate countries which have contributed the least to global heating - but must decarbonise their economies by 2050 if we are to keep global heating below 1.5C and avert the most catastrophic climate breakdown.
Almost 90% of the excess emissions are down to the wealthy global north, while the remainder are from high-emitting countries in the global south, especially oil-rich states such as Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.
Five low-emitting countries with large populations - India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria and China - would be entitled to receive $102tn, for sacrificing their fair share of the carbon budget in the zero emissions scenario.
Demands are mounting to compensate climate-vulnerable countries for the threats they face due to the excessive greenhouse gas emissions of others, as part of a broader climate justice movement to make polluters pay for the climate crisis and green energy transition.
Last year at the UN's Cop27 summit, states agreed to establish a "Loss and damage" financing fund to provide funds to poor countries for the irreparable and unavoidable economic and non-economic costs of extreme weather events and slow-onset climate disasters such as sea level rise and melting glaciers.
2023.06.07 21:24 Sylver713 Hunger Games : A new Generation (119th Hunger Games, part 2)
2023.06.07 21:11 Western_Cup4942 Dirty Oil after only 3,000 miles
2023.06.07 14:33 jhnbsomerscz4gm Does anyone have Valvoline Instant Oil Change coupons?
2023.06.07 10:10 Regular_Spend_7741 ABS light on - Prius 2010
Hi everyone, I am wondering if someone might be able to help me. I live in South Italy but I am French (important for later) and recently my 2010 Prius Active MY09 has shown the ABS light (on and off, mostly on). When it's "On" I need to press harder on the brakes but still works fine (even if strong brakes are needed which happens a lot here). My regular mechanic (that I have known for 10 years and trust 100%) doesn't do electronics so he ran the diagnostic and told me to go to the dealership and see what they say, how much it would cost and if the price is too high to come back to him and he would change what needs to be changed. Well...... The quote came back at 4000 euros ($4300) saying they need to replace the whole break pump. It's VERY expensive for here where cost of living is way lower than in the USA (oil change costs 40 euros for example). My mechanic told me it was ludicrous, moreover I also have my doubts because in the quote they wrote as a special note "Customer is a foreign woman, please change the datas" datas being the car owner (still at the name of old owner in their system) but specifying I'm a foreigner or a woman to change wasn't needed, so that really rubbed me the wrong way, as it tells me you're trying to screw me over without telling me you're trying to screw me over.... Has anyone else have this issue before? What was the issue and what did you change? How much did it cost? Thanks Prius family!submitted by Regular_Spend_7741 to prius [link] [comments]
2023.06.07 08:21 CedarWolf Thomas Paine
2023.06.06 20:20 willmagnify Notes on “A Tale of Two Cities: the development of early Arhada city states (0-500 AD)”, Part 1
This essay analyses the emergence of the first large-scale polities within the Arhadan cultural sphere, putting together the writings of notable scholars and the archaelogical record at our disposal. The title, "A Tale of Two Cities” was chosen in reference to the sites of Kamābarha and Amadahai, two settlements which would continue to act as major actors in the region throughout the following centuries. Because of their prominence, these two cities have been chosen as case studies through which we will examine the political, cultural and social characteristics of Arhada city states in the formative period. Those first few post-dawn centuries see the emergence of other important centres, but these two examples prove to be the earliest, the most consistently documented and the only ones who maintained their preeminence in post-formative eras.[...]
The text is divided into three main sections: the first detailing the general characteristics of urban, social and political developments within the region, the second and third delving into the specific nuances that these developments acquire in Kamābarha and Amadahai, respectively.
I thank the department of Tritonean studies at the Horean International University for their help in procuring material for this research, and Dr. Amaha Geherun for her invaluable guidance and insight.
2.a Palaces, urban settlements and their spatial characters.[...]
Scholars of late Tritonean prehistory usually divide the development of Arhadan settlements in three main phases; the Stilt House Period (SHP), which lasted roughly until 750 BD, the courtyard house period (CHP), which covers the millenium between 750 BD and 250 AD and the palatial house period (PHP), emerging from 250 onwards, with the development of the first palatial complexes and the first signs of wide-reaching palace economies, large scale political networks of reciprocal exchange, and true suzerain-client relationships. These three periods are named after their defining building types: the main characteristic of the SHP, unsurprisigly the one for which we have less documentation, were the small, square wooden constructions built on stilts along the lake shores and wetlands, next to the paddies. This period is the longest, stretching from the early development of zizania, cattail and sagittaria cultivation; with the construction of more specialised agricultural works and the consequent emergence of a higher level of inequality within Arhada settlements, we shift to the CHP, wherein successful family units migrated away from the lakeshores into dry land and extablished a new building typology, the multifamily courtyard house, acting as a higher status dwelling. The palace is nothing more than the natural evolution of the Courtyard-house type: it is merely larger and with cellular buildings constructed within the confines of the courtyard. The general layout consists of three outbuildings: a shrine, where the clans held religious functions both for the families and for the community at large, a granary, where the harvest would be stockpiled for distribution in lean years, and a treasury, where specialised group of artisans, usually the women of the clan, created and gathered family hierlooms, which obtained a near-sacred value and acted as further insurance against difficult harvests (See chapter 4a).
The palatial typology is fairly standardised: the frame, the courtyard building, is usually two or three stories high, with the ground floor being dedicated to common rooms, the middle floor containing the apartments of the clanmen and women and the last floor, built under a steep thatch roof, hosting lower-status inhabitants: servants, guards, favourites. What is more variable, however, was the disposition of buildings inside; shrines especially assumed different typologies: the constant is in their verticality and consistent central-plan type. From pictographic and sculptural sources, we can also note that canopies, usually defined by square-plans with four columns at the four corners, were important places of gathering, where tobacco ceremonies and clan meetings were held in the hot summers of southern Tritonea.
While it's interesting to consider the palace as a singular architectural and typological phenomenon, no discussion about the palatial type is complete without a mention about its relationship with the city at large. Built atop a hill (the term Nabaradjân, 'house of the hill', is, in fact, synonymous with palace), it acted as a centripetal force for the expansion of villages and cities, with important buildings being constructed radially from the central point of the palace and all other houses, small scale orchards and other structures being built in between. As architectural types specialised and key public buildings began to be built outside of the confines of the palace – granaries first, then shrines and storehouses – the radial composition of cities began to be even more clearly visible – in later periods those secondary "nodes" would create other radial sprawling points. "Radial cities, early settlement patterns in Arhadaland", by Dr. Amaha Geherun, provides an in-depth study of the spatiality of early, late and imperial Arhada cities.Reminder to get that book as soon as I get paid this week – couldn't find it at the library.
4.a Political Networks, the first states and the "Bead Bracelet" Structure.I had to copy the map in the book, because I was having a hard time visualising it. There was also a more schematic version of it. Apparently, villages owed "fealty" (though I'm sure that's the wrong word) to bigger villages wich in turn owed "fealty" to bigger ones. It wasn't really a feudalistic setup, though. Land belonged to the single villages, who cultivated it directly – but they were essentially client cities, providing labour or artisanal goods to their suzerain, provided they would keep their granaries full in lean years. Another quote on this, and some interesting notes on the contracts between polities:
With the growth of palaces, we can truly see the evolution of Arhada settlements change from villages, to cities, to city-states: each palace acted as a key driver for a city’s local economy; from within the various clans of the palace, the men of the clan oversaw and organised works in the paddies, allocating human resources and ensuring the harvest was safely stored in the granary. The women, on the other hand, handled the production of specialised crafts - pottery, textiles, painting and dye production being the most common ones - which would form the bulk of the treasury. This setup, which contributed to a general labour specialisation even outside the confines of the palace, greatly contributed to the growing influence of palaces in the surrounding sub-urban territory.
Archeological and archaeo-anthropological studies show that the early Zizania aquatica strains cultivated by Tritonean farmers were prone to failures, with some estimates indicating a one in six chance of failure. This insecurity was the main driver for the construction of granaries, and, later, the use of the palaces treasure as a sort of insurance against bad harvests. There is ample tangible evidence of extra-urban exchanges of luxury trade goods between palaces around the southern lakes - with them, came birchbark contracts (and, more rarely clay tablets), documenting the exchange agreements between villages. Sadly, we have very few documents of this kind, but just enough to get a clear picture of what these signified.
What looked like simple exchanges based on favours and giftgiving - which basically amounted to “I owe yous” with a precious gifts attached - quickly developed into more deliberate agreements. We find pictographic contracts detailing the exchange of zizania for corvée labour or zizania in exchange for a larger repayment over a period of several years. Often villages would repay their benefactor by providing labour until they were able to return the same quantity of zizania – other times, contracts operated over a fixed period of time. The maturation of these systems culminated in semi-permanent ties between villages and a construction of hierarchical client-patron relations. The short term contracts between polities, exchanging part of the harvest for corvées, valuable goods or interest on the repayment, became more and more drawn out, until finally long term relationships were established.
The term "Bead Bracelet network", introduced by Dr Lagor Daham in her seminal work "Early Political Relationships along the Southern Tritonean lakes: new models of political unity", is used to refer to these long strings of villages sharing some form political affiliation, each village being the client or suzerain of another one within the chain. The water-based agricultural tradition of Tritonea conditioned the developments of their urban centres as lines running paralel to the lakeshore, each with some influence over their adjoining woodland and wetlands: the creation of these ties would then follow these lines, creating complexes of neighbouring villages with varying degrees of freedoms and duties towards one other. these ties and contracts, which would be overseen by clan matriarchs, would connect all villages within a single network to the highest one.
In truth, most of these ties would not be very long lasting, and could break immediately if either of the parties was unable to maintain the foundational promises of the agreement. This usually resulted in small scale warfare in which the suzerain's victory would result in an even more restrictive contract and the clients victory would signify temporary freedom from the expansion of its neighbour's political influence. Kamābarha and Amadahai were the first to estabish stable and well-maintained networks of this kind, mostly due to the fact that their prosperous positions – Kamābarha in fertile and rich land, Amadahai straddled between two lakes, controlling trade and expanding at a fast pace along two lakesides – allowed them to maintain control over nearby polities thanks to the consistency with which they were able to provide their side of the bargain and distribute parts of their abundant harvest to their clients.[...]
The terms of the contracts themselves were extremely heterogeneous – and could be easily changed and misinterpreted. Being pictographic in nature, with imagery tied to Arhada proverb glyphs, they served more as visual aids to help the matriarchs remember the exact terms of a contract. It's a widely held belief that it's a need for specificity in birchbark contracts that led Arhada women to the development of true logographic writing in the following centuries.This note I found particularly interesting! I'll have to read more on that.
7. Trade and external relationsOne last bad drawing for today. I saw this map and I was truly impressed with how developed trade networks were at that time, especially for people who did not have horses or chariots. I'm afraid I'll have to read through second half of the book tomorrow, the library's closing now – end of note.
One final point to be made, before we delve into the specific configurations and internal histories of our two cities, has to do with trade systems within the Arhada cultural sphere. Arhadanists and scholars of Tritonean history speak of the Formative "Northern pottery", "Middle pottery" and "Southern pottery" schools: the Arhada territory fell squarely between the Middle and Southern areas, with Kamābarha being connected to the Kemithātsan polities along the southern shore of the Sihodjivôdjo (Middle school), and thus having an closer relationship to northern and western cultures into Xanthean territories, and Amadahai being connected instead to southern cultures such as the Zonowōdjon, beyond the lake, with whom they entertained relationships in a network that extended south, beyond Tritonea proper, in the territories of the Aluwa. As such, our two case studies present very different cultural traits and influences – it must be noted, however, that the deep interrelation of Arhadan cities through the connective tissue of the lakes serves as an avenue for the exchange and merger of these two very different cultural impulses.
The Arhada themselves were great exporters of finished products. Indigo dyes, pottery, hemp-cattail blend textiles and pecan oil, used both in cuisine and cosmetics, were ubiquitous items throughout Arhada territories; preserved fruits were common southern commodities; brass products from the zinc-abundant copper ores along the Green River, were Kamābarha's most valuable export. It's interesting, however, to analyse what was imported into their territories during this period, so that we can better track the changes in material culture throughout the early formative. Contact with the nearby Kemithātsan is evident in the spread of glazes in Middle Pottery school sites. Even in Souther Pottery sites we can begin to observe more Middle style artefacts, and we have evidence of kilns being built – many scholars believe these kilns were actually built by Kemithātsan artisans who relocated in the south. From the Kemithātsan they also obtained picked goods and wines, whose production was more specialised. Maple – a prised product in the south – was also obtained through northern trade routes.
Southern trade relationships were more tenuous at that time – Arhada groups migrated into Zonowōdjon lands around 500 AD, and while intermingling did occur at an early stage, we have evidence of a rather fraught relationship, with several Arhadan led attacks into the southern regions, certainly with the aim of clearing coastal land for more intensive agricultural production. Sanaboborôn, another formative site which would develop in the later quarter of the 1st millenium AD, emerged in the wake of these attacks, following different dynamics when compared the other early Arhada cities. This development, which lies outside the themes of this research, is brilliantly explored in another seminal work by Dr Lagor Daham, published in the collection of essays "Dawn of War: Martial history in formative Horea". While tensions and distrust with neighbouring Tritonean peoples slowed trade between the eastern and western southern lakes, polities such as Amadahai and Sanaboborôn found fertile ground with trade further down the continent. Crossing the Gorgonean-Tritonean mountain range they would encounter the Aluwa people – corals were an especially prised trade item, but spices such as peppers and citrus peel were also brought north, where they would enter the diets of elite Arhadans.
2023.06.06 20:06 Nick_Hammer96 Valvoline oil change
2023.06.06 18:40 bikingfencer 1st John, chapter 2 - walk the talk
-1. My children [ילדי, YeLahDah-eeY], write I to you [את, ’ehTh (indicator of direct object; no English equivalent)] the words the these to sake you not sin,The Anointed learns upon us right [זכות, ZeKhOoTh]
“…ethics in the N.T. [New Testament] is never finally a matter of a ‘works-righteousness’ or code. The Spirit interprets our duty to us in various situations.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 227)-2. And he is atonement [כפרה, KahPahRaH] for our sins,
“`Ιλασμος [‘Ilasmos], the atoning sacrifice for our sins… כפור kippur … The word is used only here, and in chap. iv.10.” (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 862)and not upon our sins only,
“The apostle does not say that he died for any select part of the inhabitants of the earth, or for some out of every nation, tribe, or kindred, but for ALL MANKIND: and the attempt to limit this is a violent outrage against God and his word.” (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 862)-3. And in this know [נדע, NayDah`] that we recognize [שהכרנו, ShehHeeKahRNOo] him: if we guard his commandments.
-7. My beloved, not a commandment new write I to you,……………………………………………………….
The new commandment
“… a love of the creature and the creation is disparaged over against the primal and everlasting ground of existence, the Father and his purpose….-16. For all that is in the world - lust of [תאות, Thah’ahVahTh] fleshes, lust of the eyes, and pride of [וגאות, VeGah’ahVahTh] the possessions [הנכסים, HahNeKhahÇeeYM] - not from the father is it, rather from the world.
Such an emphasis is indeed exposed to the modern reproach of a false otherworldliness, and this passage has often been used to fortify such a piety.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB pp. XII 238-239)
“For the lust of the eyes a passage in the Testament of Reuben10 (ch. [chapter] 2) is illuminating. It speaks of the ‘seven spirits of deceit’ which are ‘appointed against man’ of which one is the ‘sense of sight from which ariseth desire’ (cf. [compare with] also Ezek. [Ezekiel] 20:7-8). Jesus strictly warns against the eye as the occasion of temptation in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. [Matthew] 5:27-29)” (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 240)…
10 “The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Torah. It is a pseudepigraphical work comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. It is part of the Oscan Armenian Orthodox Bible of 1666. Fragments of similar writings were found at Qumran, but opinions are divided if these are the same texts. It is considered Apocalyptic literature.
The Testaments were written in Greek, and reached their final form in the second century CE. In the 13th century that they were introduced into the West through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, whose Latin translation of the work gained immediately became popular. He believed that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy; he accused Jews of concealing the Testaments ‘on account of the prophecies of the Saviour contained in them.’
With the critical methods of the 16th century, Grosseteste’s view of the Testaments was rejected and the book was unjustly disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries. Presently, scholarly opinions are still divided as to whether the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs are an originally Jewish document that has been retouched by Christians or are a Christian document written originally in Greek but based on some earlier Semitic material. The feasibility of the Jewish author hypothesis is increasingly difficult to defend, while the Christian nature of the book is a given. Scholarship, therefore, focuses on this book as a Christian work, whether or not it has Jewish original (Vorlage).
A copy of the testaments is published in The Lost Books of the Bible and the Forgotten Books of Eden.
The work is divided into twelve books, each purporting to be the last exhortations of one of the twelve titular patriarchs. In each, the patriarch first narrates his own life, focusing on his strengths, virtues, or his sins, using biographical material from both the Hebrew Bible and Jewish tradition. Next he exhorts his listeners to emulate the one and to avoid the other. Most of the books conclude with prophetic visions.
The Testament of Reuben is predominantly concerned with admonishing lust, and the sinfulness of Reuben in his having had sex with Bilhah, a concubine of his father. It is likely that the author wished to cover the topic of fornication anyway, and assigned it for Reuben to discuss due to Reuben's relationship with Bilhah being recounted in the canonical bible. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testaments_of_the_Twelve_Patriarchs
-18. My children, that is the hour, the last, and, like that you heard that [כי, KeeY] would come the distressor [of] the Anointed [αντιχρισος – antichrisos ~ antichrist], also now have risen distressors of Anointed multitudinous. From here know we that that is the hour, the last.……………………………………………………….
Distressor [צורר, TsORehR] [of] the Anointed
“The actual term antichrist appears only in I and II John in the N.T. but the same figure is in view in the ‘man of lawlessness’ of II Thess. [Thessalonians] 2:3-4, in the great agent of sacrilege in Mark 13:14 and its parallels, and elsewhere. In our epistle he is identified with the ‘spirit’ of heresy (4:3) or error (4:6) as already come. He has in mind disturbers of the life of the churches generally and pretenders to messiahship or divinity in various parts of the empire. Words assigned to Jesus in the Gospels bearing on these events were thought of by the evangelists as fulfilled in their day. … The church fathers, rightly or wrongly, supply the names of Dositheus11, Simon Magus12, Judas Gallaeus, and later, Montanus13, as having made messianic claims.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB pp. XII 243-244)
11 “The legendary background of the Pseudo-Clementine polemic informs us that the precursor of ‘Simon Magus’ was a certain Dositheus. He is mentioned in the lists of the earliest hæresiologists, in a Samaritan Chronicle, and in the Chronicle of Aboulfatah (fourteenth century); the notices, however, are all legendary, and nothing of a really reliable character can be asserted of the man. That however he was not an unimportant personage is evidenced by the persistence of the sect of the Dositheans to the sixth century; Aboulfatah says even to the fourteenth. Both Dositheus and ‘Simon Magus’ were, according to tradition, followers of John the Baptist; they were, however, said to be inimical to Jesus. Dositheus is said to have claimed to be the promised prophet, ‘like unto Moses,’ and ‘Simon’ to have made a still higher claim. In fact, like so many others in those days, both were claimants to the Messiaship. The Dositheans followed a mode of life closely resembling that of the Essenes; they had also their own secret volumes, and apparently a not inconsiderable literature.
Dositheus (Dousis, Dusis, or Dosthai) was apparently an Arab, and in Arabia, we have every reason to believe, there were many mystic communities allied to those of the Essenes and Therapeuts.” http://sacred-texts.com/gno/fff/fff20.htm
12 “Simon Magus (Greek Σίμων ὁ μάγος), also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of Gitta, was a Samaritan proto-Gnostic and traditional founder of the Simonians in the first century A.D. He appeared prominently in several apocryphal and heresiological accounts of early Christian writers, who regarded him as the source of all heresies.
Simon Magus has been portrayed as both student and teacher of Dositheus, with followers who revered him as the Great Power of God. There were accusations by Christians that he was a demon in human form, and he was specifically said to possess the ability to levitate and fly at will. The fantastic stories of Simon the Sorcerer persisted into the Middle Ages, becoming a possible inspiration for Goethe's Faust.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Magus
13 “Montanism was an early Christian movement of the early 2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. It originated at Hierapolis where Papias was bishop and flourished throughout the region of Phrygia, leading to the movement being referred to as Cataphrygian (meaning it was ‘from Phrygia’). It spread rapidly to other regions in the Roman Empire at a time before Christianity was generally tolerated or legal. Although orthodox Nicene Christianity prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, labeling it a heresy, the sect persisted in some isolated places into the 8th century. Some people have drawn parallels between Montanism and modern Pentecostalism (which some call Neo-Montanism). The most widely known Montanist was undoubtedly Tertullian, who was the foremost Latin church writer before he converted to Montanism. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montanism
“The word [anointing] is not used in the N.T. outside the present chapter.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 245)…
““The χρισμα, chrism, or ointment, here mentioned, is also an allusion to the holy anointing ointment prescribed by God himself, Exod. [Exodus] xxx. 23-25. which was composed of fine myrrh14, sweet cinnamon, sweet calamus15 , cassia lignea16, and olive oil.”
14 “Myrrh is a reddish-brown resinous material, the dried sap of a number of trees, but primarily from Commiphora myrrha, native to Yemen, Somalia, the eastern parts of Ethiopia and Commiphora gileadensis, native to Jordan…. Myrrh was used as an embalming ointment and was used, up until about the 15th century, as a penitential incense in funerals and cremations. The "holy oil" traditionally used by the Eastern Orthodox Church for performing the sacraments of chrismation and unction is traditionally scented with myrrh…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrrh
15 “Sweet Flag, also known as calamus and various rushes and sedges, (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus. It is a tall perennial wetland monocot with scented leaves and more strongly scented rhizomes, which have been used medicinally, for its odor, and as a psychotropic drug.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_Flag
16 “The spice now known in pharmaceutical literature under the name of Cassia lignea has, from time immemorial, been an article of trade from South China. Flückiger and Hanbury are indeed of opinion that it was the cinnamon of the ancients, what now bears the name being peculiar to Ceylon and unnoticed as a product of the island till the thirteenth century. (‘Pharmacographia,’ pp. 520, 521.) Cinnamon and cassia are, however, enumerated amongst the products of the East from the earliest periods; and the former was known to the Arabians and Persians as Darchini (dar, wood or bark, and chini, Chinese). It seems in ancient times to have been carried by Chinese traders to the Malabar coast, where it passed into the commerce of the Red Sea. In this way the statements of Dioscorides, Ptolemy, and others, are accounted for, who speak of cinnamon as a product of Arabia and Eastern Africa, countries in which there is no reason to suppose it ever grew.” http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/journals/ajp1883/03-cassia-lign.html
“… not the Jewish refusal to recognize Jesus as the messiah; this denial would hardly be made by members of the church… it is the denial that ‘Jesus Christ has come in the flesh’. … The Doscetists made a separation between the earthly Jesus and the heavenly Christ. These verses sound very harsh and dogmatic to us (and cf. 5:10, 12). As a matter of fact, the impulse of the writer was not that of an inflexible orthodoxy: it was an appeal to the abiding dynamic witness of the Spirit, which quickens and leads into all truth. This Spirit was indeed related inseparably to the old oral confessions of the church (cf. Acts 8:37, RSV mg [margin]), but these evidently were already taking various forms, and the meaning of the term Christ, for example, had changed markedly.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB pp. XII 246-247)...
“Some have supposed that an Ebionite denial of Jesus’ messiahship is all that is intended here (so Maurice Goguel). But the second part of the verse makes it likely that Docetic-Gnostic issues are involved.” (Wilder, 1955, TIB p. XII 271)
“There were certain persons who, while they acknowledged Jesus to be a Divine Teacher, denied him to be the Christ, i.e. [in other words], the Messiah.
“He is antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son.] He is antichrist who denies the supernatural and miraculous birth of Jesus Christ; who denies Jesus to be the Son of God; and who denies God to be the Father of the Lord Jesus: - thus he denies the Father and the Son. The Jews in general, and the Gnostics in particular, denied the miraculous conception of Jesus: with both he was accounted no more than a common man, the son of Joseph and Mary. But the Gnostics held that a divine person, ᴁon or angelical being, dwelt in him; but all things else relative to his miraculous generation and divinity they rejected. These were antichrist, who denied Jesus to be the Christ.” (Clarke, 1831, p. VI 866)
Children of Gods
[verses 28 to end of chapter] An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible